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Risk factors of Deadly Cancers you should know

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.


Certain risk factors to deadly Cancers are known to increase the chance that one or more of your cells will become abnormal and lead to cancer.


Cancer is caused as a result of abnormal duplication of abnormal cells. The human body is made up of millions of tiny cells.


In the case of cancer, the abnormal cells continuously multiply into a group of abnormal cells. If this group of cells gets bigger, it becomes a large clump of abnormal cells called a tumour.

We all have a risk of developing cancer. Many cancers seem to develop for no apparent reason. However, certain risk factors are known to increase your chances of developing cancers.

Chemical carcinogens are the main known causes of all forms of cancers. Carcinogen is something (chemical, radiation, etc) which can damage a cell and make it more likely to turn into a cancerous (malignant) cell.

As a general rule, the more the exposure to a carcinogen, the greater the risk.

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.

 Risk factors of cancers:



A smoker is likely to develop cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, oesophagus, bladder and pancreas. Smoking is number one cause of cancers.

1 out of 4 cancer patients had their cancer through smoking. About 2 in 10 smokers die from lung cancer. The heavier you smoke, the greater the risk.

If you stop smoking, your risk goes down considerably.
Workplace chemicals such as asbestos, benzene, formaldehyde, etc.

If you have worked with these without protection you have an increased risk of developing certain cancers.

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.

2. Age

The older you become, the more likely it is that you will develop a cancer. This is probably due to an accumulation of damage to cells over time.

Also, the body’s defences and resistance against abnormal cells may become less good as you become older.

For example, the ability to repair damaged cells, and the immune system which may destroy abnormal cells, may become less efficient with age.

So, eventually one damaged cell may  manage to survive and multiply out of control into a cancer. Most cancers develop in older people.

3. Diet and Lifestyle factors

Diet and other lifestyle factors (and, as mentioned, smoking) can increase or decrease the risk of developing cancer. Example:

Eating a lot of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of developing certain cancers.

The exact way in which fruits and vegetables protect us against cancer is not fully understood.

These foods are rich in vitamins and minerals, and also contain chemicals called antioxidants.

They protect the body against damaging cells . We should all eat at least five portions of fruits and vegetables per day.

Red meat:
There is strong evidence that eating a lot of red meat (such as beef, pork and lamb) increases your risk of bowel cancer and stomach cancer.

Processed meat:
Processed meat also increases your risk of cancers, especially bowel cancer.
Processed meat means meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking etc.

The risk of developing certain cancers is increased by lack of regular exercise or drinking too much alcohol.

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.


Research has shown that many types of cancer are more common in people who are overweight or obese, including cancers of the breast, bowel, lining of the womb (endometrium), oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, liver, stomach, ovary, thyroid, myeloma, and brain (meningioma).


5. Radiation

Radiation is a carcinogen. For example, exposure to radioactive materials and nuclear fallout can increase the risk of leukaemia and other cancers.

Too much sun exposure and sunburn (radiation from Ultraviolet rays increase your risk of developing skin cancer.

The larger the dose of radiation, the greater the risk of developing cancer. But note: the risk from small doses, such as from a single X-ray test, is very small.

6. Infection

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.

Some germs (viruses and bacteria) are linked to certain cancers. For example, people with persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus or the hepatitis C virus have an increased risk of developing cancer of the liver.

Most (possibly all) women who develop cervical cancer have been infected with a strain (subtype) of HPV at some point in their lives. Another example is that a germ (bacterium) called Helicobacter pylori is linked to stomach cancer.

One research study estimated that about one in six cancers – two million a year globally – are caused by largely treatable or preventable infections.

They estimated that four infections – H. pylori, and hepatitis B and C viruses – accounted for 2 million cases of cervical, stomach and liver cancers.

Most of these were in the developing world. Initiatives such as immunisation against HPV and hepatitis B are helping to combat these infections.

But, most viruses and viral infections are not linked to cancer.

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.

7. Immune system

People with a poor immune system have an increased risk of developing certain cancers. For example, people with AIDS, or people on immunosuppressive therapy.

8. Your genetic makeup of

Some cancers have a strong genetic link. For example, in certain childhood cancers the abnormal gene or genes which may trigger a cell to become abnormal and cancerous are inherited. Other types of cancer may have some genetic factor which is less clear-cut. It may be that in some people their genetic makeup means that they are less resistant to the effect of carcinogens or other factors such as diet.

Most cancers are probably due to a combination of factors
Not everybody who has contact with a potential cancer-causing substance (carcinogen) or has an unhealthy lifestyle will develop cancer. For example, not all smokers develop cancer of the lung. In fact, we are all probably exposed to low doses of carcinogens a lot of the time.

The body has certain mechanisms which may protect us from developing cancer. For example, it is thought that many cells which are damaged by carcinogens can repair themselves. Also, the body’s immune system may be able to destroy some types of abnormal cells before they multiply into a tumour. Perhaps one carcinogen may only damage one gene, and two or more genes may need to be damaged or altered to trigger the cells to multiply out of control.

Risk factors to   deadly Cancers.

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