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Short Note on introduction to integrated science

Short Notes on Introduction to Integrated Science

NATURAL SCIENCE:it is the study of of a natural world and it phenomena.

It deals with laws of nature and the physical world. Natural science has several branches namely:


. Physic: It is the study of matter and energy and their interactions.


. Biology: It is the study of living things (plants and animals) and their interactions with each other and the environment.


Chemistry: lt is the branch of science which deal with properties, composition and the structure of matter.


Geology: lt is the science that involves the study of the earth and it’s origin, composition structure and history.


Astronomy: lt is the science that deal with all the celestial bodies in the universe including the planet and their satellites, comet and meteors, the stars, the galaxies and clusters of galaxies.


Short Note on introduction to integrated science


. Meteorologist: It is the science that studies atmospheric events, especially those that react to the weather.


APPLIED SCIENCE is the the study of facts that use scientific knowledge for practical use. It is the application of research to human needs.


Applied science use the knowledge acquire in pure science.


Some of the branches of applied science include the following:




. Pharmacy.




. Electronics.




Material science.


Information Communication Technology (ICT)


. Integrated science involves the teaching and learning of the natural science in a holistic manner such that none of the field stand on its own or such that the various field of science are interrelated.



MATTER is anything that has mass and occupies space.


NATURE OF MATTER. Matter consist of particles.

The particles of matter

which make up of matter are atom, molecules, and ions.


ATOM. An atom is the smallest particles of an element that can take part in chemical reaction.


MOLECULE. Is the group of atoms chemically combined together. Example of molecules are oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.


AN IONS. Is an electrically charge atom.


Short Note on introduction to integrated science


STATE OF MATTER: there are three states of matter. These are:







1. They have fixed sizes and definite shapes.


2. Solid do not flow.


3. They can easily be handled.


4. The particles in solid are closely packed together.



1. Liquids can flow.


2. They cannot easily be handled.


3. The particles are closer together than those in gas.


4. It has fixed sizes and volume but no definite shape.




1. They have no fixed shape and no fixed size.


2. Gases flow easily ( spread out) to fill any available space.


3. Gases cannot be handled.

CHANGES OF STATE OF MATTER. The processes employed in changing the states of matter are:


1. MELTING: It is a process of changing a solid to a liquid by heating or increasing temperature.


2. EVAPORATION: lt is the process by which particles on the surface of gain gains energy and escape into the vapour state.


3. BOILING: is the process of changing a liquid to a gas by heating.


4. SOLIDIFICATION/FREEZING: lt is the process of changing a liquid to a solid by removing heat from the liquid.


5. CONDENSATION: is the process of changing a liquid to a solid by removing heat from the liquid.


6. SUBLIMATION: lt is the process by which solid changes directly to gas state without passing through the liquid state.


Short Note on introduction to integrated science


FLOATATION: lt a body is completely or partially immersed.


FLOTATION: lf a body is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, it displaced it’s own weight of the body displaced.


LAW OF FLOTATION: The law of flotation states that the floating body displaced it own weight of fluid in which it floats.



1. Ship: This is the made of metal eg. Steel or iron which is light in weight, It also has a hollow shape, which contain air due to this; it’s an average density is less than that of the sea/water. This makes it float and carry a lot more than its weight.


2. Balloon: is filled with hydrogen gas whose justify is lesser than that of air. This makes the average density of the balloon lesser than that of of the air. Therefore, the balloon float in the air.




it is thin flexible semi permeable film made of protein and phosphorus.


CYTOPLASM: It is a transparent watery substance


A living thing: is an organism that perform life activities such as respiration, excretion, reproduction etc.


A non- living thing: is anything that can not perform the live activities.


NUCLEUS: it governs all the activities of the cell directing bio chemical activities such as the production of enzymes and chromosomes.


VACUOLE: The vacuole is as fluid filled sac within the cell.


MITOCHONDRIA: are sausage shaped organelles in the cytoplasm.


CHLOROPLAST: They contain the chlorophyll.





1. Plant have cellulose cell wall while animal cell have no cell wall.


2. Chloroplast are presented in plant cell but animal cell have no chloroplast.


3. Plant cell has no centriole while animal cell has centriole.


Short Note on introduction to integrated science


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